Chronology of Events

 
15th. CENTURY

1400 - Parameswara, a Hindu prince from Palembang fled Temasik (ancient Singapore) and founded Melaka.

1403 - The first official Chinese trade envoy lead by Admiral Yin Ching arrive in Melaka.

1409 - - Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) , Commander of the Chinese Imperial fleet, arrives in Melaka on the first of his seven voyages to the Indian Ocean.

1411 - Parameswara journeys to China with an entourage of 540 and meets the Ming Emperor Yung Lo.

1414 - Parameswara marries a princess from Pasai (Indonesia) and embraces Islam,changing his name to Raja Iskandar Shah.

1424 - Sri Maharaja, Parameswara's son, becomes Sultan. He converts to Islam and takes the title Muhammad Shah.

1444 - On his death, Sultan Muhammad Shah is succeeded by his youngest son Raja Ibrahim. A year later, Raja Ibrahim was murdered and buried with the title Sultan Abu Syahid

1446 - Raja Kassim(an older half-brother of Raja Ibrahim) ascended the throne with the title Sultan Muzaffar Shah and declared Islam as the state religion. Under his rule Melaka prospers.

1447 - First attack from Siam. Later the Siamese were defeated in battle near Muar.

1456 - Tun Perak becomes Bendahara or Prime Minister with the title Bendahara Paduka Raja. Serving under four Sultans, he was responsible for Melaka's rise to power in maritime Southeast Asia.

1458 - Sultan Mansur Shah succeeds Sultan Muzaffar Shah. Tun Perpateh Puteh, an envoy to China brings the Chinese Princess Hang Li Po as a wife for the Sultan.

1477 - Sultan Mansur Shah dies and is succeeded by his 15 year old son Alauddin Riayat Shah .

1488 - Sultan Alauddin was poisoned and Sultan Mahmud Shah, a younger son who became a cruel and tyrannical ruler, succeeds him.

1498 - Tun Perak dies.

 

16th. CENTURY

1500 - Tun Mutahir replaces Tun Perak as Bendahara with the title Bendahara Seri Maharaja. He became the grandest and most powerful of all the Bendaharas.

1509 - The first Royal Portuguese trading expedition commanded by Diego Lopez de Sequiera with a fleet of 18 ships arrives in Melaka. The locals called them `Benggali Putih' (white Bengalis).
A misunderstanding with the Malays took place and they were attacked but escaped leaving behind twenty men as prisoners.

1510 - In the face of the Portuguese threat, Sultan Mahmud hands many powers to his son, Ahmad Shah.Sultan Ahmad Shah succeeded the throne temporary from his father Sultan Mahmud Shah. 
Upon taking back his power, Sultan Mahmud Shah executes Bendahara Tun Mutahir and his entire family for allegedly plotting to assassinate him.

1511 - Alfonso d' Albuquerque and his Portuguese fleet attack and finally captured Melaka on the 10 August 1511. Sultan Mahmud escapes to Pahang. The Portuguese build a fort called - "A Famosa" (the Famous) and Melaka passes into colonial hands for the next four and a half centuries.

1513 - Patih Unus, a Javanese warrior attacks Malacca with 5000 men and 100 ships.

1518 - Sultan Mahmud Shah launches an unsuccessful attack to regain Melaka.

1523 - Sultan Mahmud Shah tries another attack but is defeated and escapes to Bintang in the Rhio group of islands south of Singapore.

1525 - Laksamana Hang Nadim besiege the A Famosa fortress. Food rationing from Goa is carried out. The Portuguese attack Bintang and Sultan Mahmud flees to Kampar.

1526 - Sultan Mahmud, the last sultan of Melaka, dies in Kampar. His eldest son, Ahmad Shah was executed on his father's orders. Another son, Muzaffar Shah became the first sultan of Perak while the third son, Alauddin Shah became the first sultan of Johor.

1537 - The Achinese attack Melaka but are repulsed with heavy losses. Sultan Alauddin has a large fleet at Muar but remains neutral.

1545 - Saint Francis Xavier visits Melaka on the first of his five sojourn in the city. Melaka was used as his base in the East and from here he attempted to get permission to travel to China.

1548 - The first school in Melaka, St Paul's College is established by Saint Francis Xavier for Portuguese Catholics and newly converted locals.

1550/1 - Sultan Alauddin (with his allies from Perak and Pahang)
joins with the Achinese to besiege the city of Melaka for three months.

1553 - Saint Francis Xavier dies from fever on the Island of Sancian near Canton, China. His body is buried in St. Paul's Church in Melaka for nine months before being transferred to Goa, India.

1564 - The Achinese attack Johor and capture Sultan Alauddin. He dies in Sumatra.

1568 - Johor helps the Portuguese to fight off the Achinese who terrorize the Melaka Straits for sixty years

1570 - The Achinese launch another unsuccessful attack on Melaka.

1573 - Another unsuccessful attack by the Achinese.

1574 - The Javanese state of Japara beseiges Melaka but is also unsuccessful.

1582 - The Portuguese help Johor ward off another Achinese attack, and Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah of Johor is the first of the former Malay royal house to visit Melaka.

1586/7 - With the help of forces from the Minangkabaus of Naning and Rembau, north of Melaka, Johor launches a huge land and sea attack on the Portuguese who are saved only by reinforcements from Goa.

1588 - Ralph Ritch is the first Englishman to visit Melaka.

1597 - The Dutch attack Melaka for the first time.


17th. CENTURY

1606 - The Dutch under Admiral Matelieff de Jonge, team up with the Sultan of Johor and attack Melaka. After a three months seige, the Portuguese survive the attack when troops from Goa arrive.

1615/1616 - The Achinese attack Melaka.

1628/1629 - Achinese capture Melaka for eight months before the Portuguese recapture it again.

1636 - The Dutch destroy Portuguese ships in the Melaka harbour.

1641 - Melaka falls to the Dutch on the 14 January 1641. The Portuguese Governor, Manuel de Souza Couthinho surrenders the city to Captain Minne Williemson Kaartokoe.

1645 - The Cheng Hoon Teng is founded by Kapitan Lee Wei King. It is the oldest functioning Chinese temple in Malaysia today.

1650 - The Stadthuys the Dutch administrative centre and home of the Governor is built.


18th. CENTURY

1710 - St. Peter's Church, the oldest functioning Christian church in Malaysia, is built after the Dutch restore freedom of religion to the Catholics.

1753 - Christ Church, built next to the Stadhuys in the Town Square, is completed after twelve years.

1756- The Bugis under the command of Daing Kamboja attack Melaka.

1784- Raja Haji tries to capture Melaka but is killed in battle at Teluk Ketapang.

1795- The English East India Company takes over Melaka temporarily during the Napoleonic wars.


19th. CENTURY

1807 - Under William Farquar, the English begin demolishing the A Formosa fort and transfer the city's population to Penang. The cost for demolishing the fort was 70,000 pounds.

1808 - Sir Stamford Raffles arrives in Melaka and on his recommendation the city was saved from destruction and the plan to evacuate was abandoned with the approval of Lord Minto.

1818 - After the Napoleonic Wars, Melaka is restored to the Dutch under the Treaty of Vienna.

1819 - Sultan Husin Mohamad Shah of Johor hands over Singapore to Sir Stamford Raffles of the East India Company. His grave is located in the grounds of Tranquerah Mosque.

1824 - The Anglo Dutch Treaty or the Treaty of London was made between the Dutch and the British. The British give Bencoolen, in Sumatra to the Dutch and Malacca to the English.

1826 - Melaka,Penang and Singapore are incorporated as the Straits Settlements administered by the government of India under the British.

1867 - The Straits Settlements become a Crown Colony under the Colonial Office in London.

1895 - The first rubber trees were planted by Tan Chay Yan at Bukit Lintang, Melaka.


20th. CENTURY

1901 - The Queen Victoria Fountain made of English marble is erected to commemorate the Queen's Diamond Jubilee (1837-1897).

1941 - 1945 - The Second World War

1942 - Melaka is occupied by the Japanese during the Second
World War.

1945 - Melaka is restored to the British after the Japanese surrender in Singapore.

1948 - The Communists control Malaya for 14 days. The British declare a state of "Emergency" which lasted for twelve years against the Communist Terrorists.

1956 - Tunku Abdul Rahman, the Federation of Malaya's first Prime Minister, announces the news of impending independence to 50,000 people gathered at the Padang Pahlawan, Bandar Hilir, Melaka on his return from London.

1957 - Malaysia gains independence ("Merdeka") from the British on the 31 August 1957 from the British.

1963 - Malaysia is formed with Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak forging a new nation. Singapore left Malaysia in 1965.

1969 - Malaysia is hit by racial riots in May. Major towns were placed under curfew before calm was restored.

1971 - Melaka Town is hit by major floods. A large part of the town was flooded.

1989 - Melaka is proclaimed an Historical City on 15th. April. 


The New Millennium
21st. CENTURY

2000 - Malacca enters the 21st. Century.

2001 - Wang Kang Festival was held from 4th. February to 7th. February 2001. This religious festival was last held in Melaka in 1933.

2001 - Sungei Melaka Bridge opens to the public on 1st. June
2001 . This bridge links Tranquerah to Bandar Hilir and crosses over the mouth of Sungei Melaka

2001 - www.tourism-melaka.com and www.emelaka.com/melaka were established to Bring Malaccans together and Melaka to the World. Besides these objectives, these two websites will also become the archives of news and views on Melaka by Malaccans and visitors alike as the news and events unfold.

2003 - Since September 2003, www.tourism-melaka.com has been selected to represent Melaka under the Tourism Malaysia website.

2003 - Phase One of the Beautification and rehabilitation of Sungei Melaka begins. Phase One will be completed in January 2005. On completion, there will be a 3.2 km long river walk and an integrated sewage system in the old sector of Melaka.

2003 - Discovery of the foundations of "The Fort Santiago". The tower foundation was located about 80m south-west of the present A' Famosa which was used by the Portuguese to defend Malacca.

November 30th. 2006 - Discovery of the foundations of the "Bastion Middlesburgh and the Fortaleza D’Malacca (Malacca Fort), which has been described as one of the most important archaeological finds in the state. The ancient wall foundation was located at the edge of the Malacca River which was used by the Dutch to monitor ship movement into and out of Malacca. The foundations of a new 110 meters high observation tower were being done when the discovery was made. Since the discovery, the revolving tower site has been shifted to another location.

APRIL 2008 - Melaka's 110 metres high tower opens. Named "Officially named Menara Taming Sari or unofficially, Melaka Tower, this tower was re-located to Bandar Hilir after the original site had to be abandoned as the foundations of "Bastion Middlesburgh" was discovered.

JULY 7TH. 2008 - MELAKA LISTED ON UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE CITY LIST UNDER "MELAKA & GEORGETOWN - HISTORIC CITIES IN THE STRAITS OF MALACCA" - Melaka and Georgetown were officially listed by UNESCO as "Historic Cities in the Straits of Malacca" from 7th. July 2008. By this listing, Melaka and Georgetown are one of the many World Heritage cities protected by UNESCO and listed for visitors to see and experience.



Updated: 18th. March 2004 with assistance from Encik Salim Maldern
Updated: 16th. March 2005.
Updated: 20th. December 2006.
Updated: 8th. July 2008.